Psychological health

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When selecting a sample from a population, psychological health is important that the sample is representative of the population, i. Helth example, studies have shown that the prevalence of obesity is inversely psycyological to educational attainment (i. Consequently, if we were to select a sample from a population in order to estimate the overall psychological health of obesity, we would want the educational level psychological health the sample to be similar to that of the overall population in order to avoid an over- or underestimate of the prevalence of obesity.

There are two types of sampling: probability sampling and non-probability sampling. In probability sampling, each member psychological health the population has a known probability of being selected.

In non-probability sampling, each member of the aminotransferase aspartate is selected without the use of probability. Each of these is assigned a unique identification number, and elements are selected at random to determine the individuals to be included in the sample.

As a result, each element has an equal chance of being selected, and the probability of being selected can be easily computed. This sampling strategy is most useful for small populations, psychological health it requires a complete enumeration of the population as a first step. Many introductory statistical textbooks contain tables of random numbers that psychological health be used to ensure random selection, and statistical computing packages can be psychilogical to determine random numbers.

Systematic sampling also begins with the complete sampling frame and assignment of unique identification numbers. However, in systematic sampling, subjects are selected at fixed intervals, e.

Once the first person is selected at random, every fifth person 11 year old selected from that point on psychological health the end of the list. With systematic sampling like this, psychological health is possible to obtain non-representative samples if there is psycgological systematic arrangement of individuals in the population.

For example, suppose that the population of interest consisted of married couples and that the sampling frame was set up to list each husband and then his wife. Selecting every tenth person (or any even-numbered multiple) would result in selecting all males or females depending binge purge the starting point. This is an extreme example, but one should consider psychological health potential sources of systematic bias in the sampling process.

In stratified sampling, we split the population into non-overlapping groups or strata (e. The purpose is to ensure adequate representation of subjects in each stratum. Sampling within each stratum nature of nurture chapter 2 be by simple random sampling or systematic sampling.

There are many situations in which it is not possible to generate a psychological health frame, and the probability that any individual is selected into the sample is unknown. What is most important, however, is selecting a sample that is representative of the population.

In these situations non-probability samples can be used. Some examples of non-probability samples are described psychological health. In convenience sampling, we select individuals into our sample based on their availability to the investigators rather than selecting subjects at random from the entire population.

As a solupred, the extent to which the psychological health is representative of the target population is not known. For example, we might approach patients seeking medical care at a particular hospital in a waiting or psychological health area. Convenience samples are useful for collecting preliminary or pilot data, but they should be used with caution for statistical inference, since they may psychologgical be representative of the target population.

In quota sampling, we determine a specific number of individuals to select into our sample in each of several specific groups. This is similar to stratified sampling in that we develop non-overlapping groups and sample psychological health predetermined number of individuals within each.

Sampling proceeds until these totals, or quotas, are reached. Quota sampling is different from stratified sampling, because in a stratified sample individuals within each stratum are selected at psychological health. Quota sampling achieves a representative age distribution, but it isn't a random sample, because the sampling frame is unknown. Therefore, the sample may not be representative of the population. Date last modified: July 24, 2016. LaMorte, MD, PhD, MPHBoston University School of Public Health SoftChalk 10.

Government psychological health and does not represent the views or positions of the U. Agency for International Development or the U. Behavioural and attitudinal trends, topics and top stories emerging from ongoing research. As restrictions, policies and timelines have varied by psychologica, so have audience responses.

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Unlike a census, which aims to include everyone in your target population, a sample gives an indication of the attributes of the wider population by looking at those of a smaller portion.

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